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Dangerous Mosquito: Dengue fever its signs, symptoms prevention and treatment

Dengue fever its signs, symptoms prevention and treatment
What is dengue fever?

Dengue fever is a diseases caused by a family of different viruses that are spread by the bite of an infected mosquito.

To many people who are bitten by mosquitoes, dengue hemorrhagic fever can be very  severe and  often fatal and many cases are always reported in different parts of the world such as Brazil, Thailand, Cuba, Indonesia, Colombia,  Mexico, Philippines, Honduras, China, Malaysia, Vietnam, Myanmar, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, India and Pakistan.

The dengue fever illness last fir up to 10 days but  complete recovery can take as long as a month. Getting to know the signs of dengue fever will prevent many dengue attacks to your close family members and friends as well.

How is dengue spread?

Dengue fever just like the malaria disease is spread by the bite of an Aedes female mosquito which is a common insect found allover the world but it’s the number one deadliest killer in the world. The mosquito transmits this dangerous disease by biting an infected person and then biting someone who has never been bitten by the dengue mosquito.

Where is dengue found?

The dengue mosquitoes are mostly found where people live and people should be on the lookout for all possible ways of stopping getting attacked by the dengue mosquitoes. Many dengue mosquitoes are found in tins which have been thrown away with stagnant water, tires, flower pots, old water pipes, crevices, and old oil drums, leftover house hold equipments in the shade, water storage containers close to human dwellings and any water catchments.

The dengue mosquito with all its attacks take place during the day as contrary to the malaria causing mosquito. Be warned that any day time bites could be as dangerous as any dengue causing mosquito bite. Just be on the look out for any mosquitoes. Malaria causing mosquitoes are as deadly to so why take a chance for either of them. Be safe and stay safe. 

What are the signs and symptoms of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever?

  1. High fever
  2. Severe headache
  3. Pain behind the eyes
  4. Muscle and joint pain
  5. Nausea
  6. Vomiting
  7. Loss of appetite are common.
  8. Occasionally a rash appears 3 to 4 days when the dengue mosquito attacks.

Dengue alarming signs
  1. Intense abdominal pain
  2. Bleeding in the gums
  3. Bleeding in the mucous membranes
  4. Vomiting blood.
  5. Restlessness or somnolence

*All these dengue fever symptoms are  characterized by enlargement of the liver and can lead to circulatory failure.

In many parts of the world where these dengue fever episodes are prevalent, most people who are infected with dengue fever result in relatively mild illness. Some people and mostly young children, but some can progress to dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is fatal in about 5 percent of cases, mostly among children and young adults.

As the dengue hemorrhagic fever starts to take its toll, the blood vessels start to leak and cause bleeding from the nose, some might experience some bleeding to the mouth, and gums.

Bruising can be a sign of bleeding inside the body. Without prompt treatment, the blood vessels can collapse, causing shock (dengue shock syndrome). 

The mosquito
Yes, the humble mosquito. What we Brits regard as an annoying pest is actually the most dangerous creature on the planet, thanks to its ability to spread disease with alarming efficiency. Best known for spreading deadly malaria, mossies also spread elephantiasis, yellow fever, dengue fever and West Nile virus, which was recently introduced to the US and is now prevalent in all states.
Responsible for: An estimated 2-3 million fatalities a year.
Hangs out in: Worldwide; harmful in Africa, Asia and North America.
Method of dispatch: Using serrated mouth parts, female mosquitoes pierce the skin and inject saliva containing a thinning agent to liquidise the blood. Most people won’t know that they have been bitten until the immune system reacts, resulting in red, itchy bumps that continue to itch for days after the initial bite.
Useful avoidance techniques: Mosquito nets treated with DDT are the most effective way to keep them at bay, as well as combative sprays and treatments that can be applied directly to the skin. Wear light-coloured, long clothes in the evening. If travelling to malaria zones, ensure that you take your full course of tablets before, during and after your stay.

Facts about Mosquito and Malaria
About 3.3 billion people - half of the world's population - are at risk of malaria.
 Every year, this leads to about 250 million malaria cases and nearly one million deaths.
 People living in the poorest countries are the most vulnerable.
Malaria is especially a serious problem in Africa, where one in every five (20%) childhood deaths is due to the effects of the disease.
 An African child has on average between 1.6 and 5.4 episodes of malaria fever each year.
 And every 30 seconds a child dies from malaria

Diagnosis and treatment

Early diagnosis of malaria and its effective and timely treatment reduces morbidity and prevents death from malaria. Diagnostic tools - microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests - and medicines - artemisinin-based combination treatments - allow effective case management. Diagnostic tests and combination medicines of good quality need to be used correctly and strategically to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality and to reduce the risk of parasite resistance to medicines.

Prompt and accurate parasitological confirmation of malaria is essential for effective disease management and malaria surveillance

The patient should be treated early with a safe and effective antimalarial medicine.

Drug resistance
Antimalarial drug resistance hinders malaria control and is therefore a major public health problem

Quality of antimalarial medicines
Observing stringent quality standards for antimalarial medicine ensures safe and effective medicines are consistently made available for widespread use

Malaria epidemics and emergencies

Malaria epidemics kill more than 100 000 people of all ages every year and up to 30% of malaria deaths in Africa occur in the wake of war, local violence or other emergencies.

Elimination and eradication

Malaria elimination – the interruption of local mosquito-borne malaria transmission – is the end goal in the fight against the disease. In addition to being vital for public health and part of overall development efforts, malaria elimination will have a profound impact on other sectors, such as business and tourism.
Malaria eradication is the permanent elimination to zero of worldwide incidence of malaria infection

Information for Travellers Malaria Control

Travellers. The ABCD of malaria protection

A. Be Aware of the risk, the incubation period and the main symptoms
B. Avoid being Bitten by mosquitoes, especially between dusk and dawn
C. Take antimalarial drugs (Chemoprophylaxis) to suppress infection where appropriate
D. Immediately seek Diagnosis and treatment if a fever develops one week or more after entering an area where there is a malaria risk, and up to 3 months after departure.

Vector control of malaria

Vector control remains the most generally effective measure to prevent malaria transmission and therefore is one of the four basic technical elements of the Global Malaria Control Strategy.
The principal objective of vector control is the reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality by reducing the levels of transmission. Vector control methods vary considerably in their applicability, cost and sustainability of their results.

High risk groups

Some population groups are at considerably higher risk of contracting malaria and suffering from, or dying of it, than others. They include pregnant women, patients with HIV/AIDS, non-immune travelers, and in high transmission areas children under five years of age. They warrant particular measures for prevention of malaria and to mitigate this risk, taking into consideration their specific circumstances and the tools and strategies available